State of Superior Cuisine

State of Superior Cuisine: Yooper Food

Yooper Food

Measurements & Temperatures

Early recipes often contained bits of wisdom, ranging from

225F very slow oven
250-300F slow oven
300-350F moderate oven
350-400F hot oven
400-450F quick oven
450-500F very hot oven
525F broiling temperature
550F searing temperature

measurements to common cooking rules to household hints covering a variety of circumstances.

I’ve included some of them here, both for your entertainment and edification.

How to Measure

  • All measurements should be made level or flat.
  • Accurate measurement is essential to ensure good cooking.
  • A half-pint measuring cup, with fourths and thirds indicated, is the standard.
  • Standard measuring spoons may be bought in sets consisting of ¼, ½, and 1 teaspoon and 1 tablespoon.

Table of Weights & Measures

60 drops

1 teaspoon

3 teaspoons

1 tablespoon

1 rounded tablespoon

2 tablespoons

4 tablespoons

1/4 cup

16 tablespoons

1 cup

2 cups

1 pint

2 pints

1 quart

4 quarts

1 gallon

8 quarts

1 peck

4 pecks

1 bushel

16 ounces

1 pound

4 cups flour

1 pound

3 cups corn meal

1 pound

2 cups granulated sugar

1 pound

2-2/3 cups powdered sugar

1 pound

2-2/3 cups brown sugar

1 pound

2 cups solid meat

1 pound

9 medium sized eggs

1 pound

2 cups solid butter

1 pound

butter the size of an egg

1/4 cup

1 pound brick of butter

2 cups

4 tablespoons flour

1 ounce

2 tablespoons butter, sugar, salt

1 ounce

1 square bitter chocolate

1 ounce

1 ounce chocolate

1/3 cup cocoa

1 cup raisins

6 ounces

1 pound walnuts in shell

1/2 pound shelled

1 pound pecans in shell

1/2 pound shelled

1 cup walnuts shelled

1/4 pound

1 cup pecans shelled

1/3 pound

1 cup almonds shelled

1/4 pound

1/3 cup chopped blanched almonds

1 ounce

1 peck potatoes

15 pounds

1 bushel plums

50 pounds

1 bushel pears

48 pounds

1 bushel peaches

48 pounds

1 bushel apples

44 pounds


Information found on this page is derived from
The Settlement Cook Book
Mrs. Simon Kander




Measuring Dry Ingredients

  • A cupful is a measuring cup filled LEVEL or even with the ridge marked 1 cup. To measure dry ingredients, such as flour and sugar, fill lightly with a spoon, taking care not to shake the cup.
  • A spoonful is a spoon filled LEVEL with the top. First sift the material into a bowl, dip in the spoon, lift it slightly heaping and level it by sliding the side of a knife across the top of the spoon. Do not level by pressing it.
  • Half a spoonful is obtained by dividing through the middle lengthwise. For a quarter spoonful divide the half crosswise, and for an eighth divide the quarter crosswise.
  • A speck or a few grains of anything is what will lie within a space one fourth of an inch square.

Measuring Butter

  • To measure butter or fat, pack solidly into cup or spoon and make level with a knife. If very hard, soften by leaving it in a warm place for awhile, or cut into small pieces before measuring.
  • When a recipe calls for a part of a cup of butter or lard, fill a cup with cold water and pour out as much as the amount of butter required. For example, if you need ¼ cup of butter, fill a measuring cup ¾ full of water, then add butter until water reaches the line indicating 1 cup. Pour off the water and take out butter.
  • To measure brick butter, cut 1 lb. of brick butter in half crosswise. Each square equals one cup. Cut each square in half for half cups. Cut into four equal parts for one-fourth cup. Cut each fourth into four equal parts and each part equals one tablespoon.
    • To cut brick butter, cover the blade of the knife with wax paper or dip knife in very hot water, or saw through with string.

Setting the Table

  • The Table - Should be placed in the middle of the dining room, with the center placed directly under the central light.
  • Silence Cloth - Cover the table with a silence cloth of felt padding, Canton flannel, or asbestos. Over this, spread a spotless table cloth evenly, the middle crease dividing the table exactly in half. For breakfast, luncheon or supper, doilies (on padded mats for hot plates) may be used instead of a cloth.
  • Center Decoration - Should be low. Place everything straight upon the table, as neat and attractive as possible. Avoid crowding dishes.
  • A Cover - Consists of plates, glasses, silver and napkin to be used by one person. The “covers” should be directly opposite each other, allowing twenty-five to thirty inches from plate to plate.
  • Dishes - Heat dishes in which warm food is served, and chill dishes for salads and ices.
  • Service Plate - This plate should be placed one inch from the edge of the table and should remain in place until the salad is served. On the service plate is placed the plate containing the cocktail glass for fruit or oysters, the appetizer, the bouillon cup or soup plate and the hot plate for the main course.
  • The Knives - Sharp edges toward the plate, are placed to the right, followed by the soup spoon, bowl turned up, with the cocktail fork at the extreme right end.
  • The Forks - Tines turned up, are placed to the left of teh service plate.
  • The Spoons - Bowls turned up, handles to the right, are placed above the service plate, the after-dinner coffee spoon being nearest the plate. All silver should be placed in the order in which it is used, beginning farthest from the plate and continuing toward the plate.
  • The Water Glass - Should stand a short distance from the point of the knife.
  • The Bread & Butter Knife - At the top and a bit to the left of the forks, the spreader on the plate, edge turned in and handle slanting toward the right.
  • The Napkin - Placed to the left of the forks with the fold at the top, the hemmed edges parallel with the forks and the table edge.
  • Dessert Silver - Silver for the dessert course is not put on with the other silver at a formal dinner, nor are more than three forks laid. Additional silver is brought in with the salad or dessert, either on the plate or placed from a napkin or tray at the right of the plate.
  • Salt & Pepper - Individual salt and pepper sets are placed above each plate or between each two covers.
  • Side Board & Serving Table - Used to hold all extras which may be needed during a meal. All silver for serving should be laid out on the serving table.

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